Three developments in United States higher education that you are benefiting from today started more than a century ago following the Civil War. The first of these was the rapid growth of technological and urban society; new schools of technology, engineering, architecture, law and medicine. Second was the provision for graduate study, such as had long existed in France and Germany. Harvard and John Hopkins Universities quickly took the lead in this field. But the state universities didn't lag far behind. Third was the increased provision for the education for women. This included the establishment of new women's colleges, such as Vassar, Wellesley and Smith, and the adoption of coeducation in all the new state universities outside the south as well as in many private institutions. These developments, the growth of technological and educational opportunities for women begun over a century ago, continue to this day, well over ten decades since the end of the Civil War.